§ 48

Law § 48 of Hammurabi's Code

Translation
If a man has incurred a debt and The Storm has eroded away his field, or a flood has overwhelmed it, or if grain has not been produced from the field because of a lack of water, he need not repay grain to his creditor for that year. He shall moisten the tablet and pay no installment for that year.

Cuneiform

Law § 48 - Cuneiform - Law Code of Hammurabi

Source: Bergmann (1953, p. 10, col. XIII–XIV, lns. 71–73; 1–17)

Transliteration

šum-ma a-wi-lum ḫu-bu-ul-lum e-li-šu i-ba-aš-ši-ma eḳil-šu iluAdad ir-ta-ḫi-iṣ u lu-u bi-ib-bu-lum it-ba-al u lu-u i-na la me-e šeʾum i-na eḳlim la it-tab-ši i-na ša-at-tim šu-a-ti šeʾam a-na be-el ḫu-bu-ul-[li] u-ul u-ta-ar dup-pa-šu u-ra-ad-da-ab u ṣi-ib-tam ša ša-at-tim šu-a-ti u-ul i-na-ad-di-in

Source: Abulhab (2017, p. 42)

Normalization

šumma awīlum ḫubullum elišu ibaššīma eqelšu Adad irtaḫiṣ u lu bibbulum itbal u lu ina la mê šeʾum ina eqlim la ittabši ina šattim šuāti šeʾam ana bēl ḫubullišu ul utâr. ṭuppašu uraṭṭab u ṣibtam ša šattim šuāti ul inaddin.

Source: Richardson (2004, p. 58)

Translation

If a man has incurred a debt and The Storm has eroded away his field, or a flood has overwhelmed it, or if grain has not been produced from the field because of a lack of water, he need not repay grain to his creditor for that year. He shall moisten the tablet and pay no installment for that year.

Source: Richardson (2004, p. 59)

Citation

Dedović, B. "§ 48 - eHammurabi." OMNIKA Foundation, 26 Oct. 2023, ehlaw.org/law/48. [Accessed 13 Apr. 2024]

MLA 9

Dedović, B. (2023, October 26). § 48 - eHammurabi. OMNIKA Foundation. https://ehlaw.org/law/48

APA 7

Dedović, Boban. "§ 48 - eHammurabi." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created October 26, 2023. Modified March 27, 2024. Accessed April 13, 2024. https://ehlaw.org/law/48.

CMS 16

Bibliography

Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. New York, NY: Blautopf, 2017.

ACH

Bergmann, Eugen. Codex Ḫammurabi: Textus Primigenius. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1953.

CHTP

Huehnergard, John. A Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

HAG3

Huehnergard, John. Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

HKEY3

OMNIKA Foundation Contributors. "OMNIKA: Digital Mythology Library & Search Engine." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation, accessed November 14, 2023. https://omnika.org. [Visit]

Richardson, Mervyn E.J. Hammurabi's Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2004.

RHL

Sound of Text Contributors. "Sound of Text: AI Text-to-Speech." Accessed November 14, 2023. https://soundoftext.app. [Visit]

SoT

eHammurabi Glossary

The § symbol commonly denotes "a shorthand notation for the word 'section'."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Cuneiform commonly means "an ancient writing system used by various cultures around Mesopotamia."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Normalization commonly means "the application of grammatical rules unto transliterated sound values."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Translation commonly means "the conversion of linguistic contents and their meanings from one language into another."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Transliteration commonly means "the conversion of sound values from one writing system into another."

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