§ 12

Law § 12 of Hammurabi's Code

Summary
the punishment for deceased sellers of stolen property is using the seller's estate to pay a five-fold fine of the judgment to the buyer.

This law seems to rely on conditions provided in § 9.

Translation
If the seller has passed on, the buyer will receive up to five times the fine for that judgment from the seller’s estate.

Cuneiform

Law § 12 - Cuneiform - Law Code of Hammurabi

Source: Bergmann (1953, p. 5, col. VIII, lns. 4–13)

Transliteration

šum-ma na-di-na-nu-um a-na ši-im-tim it-ta-la-ak ša-a-a-ma-nu-um i-na bi-it na-di-na-nim ru-gu-um-me-e di-nim šu-a-ti A.RÁ 5-šu i-le-qé

Source: Huehnergard (2011, p. 382–383)

Normalization

šumma nādinānum ana šīmtim ittalak, šayyāmānum ina bīt nādinānim rugummê dīnim šuāti adi ḫamšīšu ileqqe.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 100)

Translation

If the seller has passed on, the buyer will receive up to five times the fine for that judgment from the seller’s estate.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 100)

LawgicSnifferSM

Logic Map for § 12

#
Steps
Law Text
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3 the seller
  • 4 has passed on,
  • 5
  • 6 (then)
  • 7
  • 8 the buyer
  • 9 will receive up to five times the fine for that judgment
  • 10 from the seller’s estate.
  • 11
  • 12
  • 13

GrammarSnifferSM

Akkadian Words in Law § 12

šumma (conditional Particle) "if; whether"

ana (Preposition) "to, for, in order to"

ina (Preposition) "in, on, onto"

Citation

Dedović, B. "§ 12 - eHammurabi." OMNIKA Foundation, 24 Oct. 2023, ehlaw.org/law/12. [Accessed 19 Apr. 2024]

MLA 9

Dedović, B. (2023, October 24). § 12 - eHammurabi. OMNIKA Foundation. https://ehlaw.org/law/12

APA 7

Dedović, Boban. "§ 12 - eHammurabi." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created October 24, 2023. Modified March 30, 2024. Accessed April 19, 2024. https://ehlaw.org/law/12.

CMS 16

Bibliography

Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. New York, NY: Blautopf, 2017.

ACH

Bergmann, Eugen. Codex Ḫammurabi: Textus Primigenius. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1953.

CHTP

Huehnergard, John. A Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

HAG3

Huehnergard, John. Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

HKEY3

OMNIKA Foundation Contributors. "OMNIKA: Digital Mythology Library & Search Engine." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation, accessed November 14, 2023. https://omnika.org. [Visit]

Richardson, Mervyn E.J. Hammurabi's Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2004.

RHL

Sound of Text Contributors. "Sound of Text: AI Text-to-Speech." Accessed November 14, 2023. https://soundoftext.app. [Visit]

SoT

eHammurabi Glossary

The § symbol commonly denotes "a shorthand notation for the word 'section'."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Cuneiform commonly means "an ancient writing system used by various cultures around Mesopotamia."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Normalization commonly means "the application of grammatical rules unto transliterated sound values."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Translation commonly means "the conversion of linguistic contents and their meanings from one language into another."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Transliteration commonly means "the conversion of sound values from one writing system into another."

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