§ 23

Law § 23 of Hammurabi's Code

Summary
the remedy for victims of robbery is replacement of missing property by the regional representative.

This law seems to rely on conditions provided in § 22.

Translation
If the robber has not been caught, the robbed man will establish his missing property before the god and the town and mayor in whose region and district the robbery was committed will replace his missing property for him.
Inscription

Cuneiform

Law § 23 - Cuneiform - Law Code of Hammurabi

Source: Bergmann (1953, p. 6, col. IX, lns. 28–45)

Transliteration

šum-ma ḫa-ab-ba-tum la it-ta-aṣ-ba-at a-wi-lum ḫa-ab-tum mi-im-ma-šu ḫal-qá-am ma-ḫa-ar i-lim ú-ba-ar-ma URU ù ra-bi-a-nu-um ša i-na er-ṣe-ti-šu-nu ù pa-ṭi-šu-nu ḫu-ub-tum iḫ-ḫa-ab-tu mi-im-ma-šu ḫal-qá-am i-ri-a-ab-bu-šum

Source: Huehnergard (2011, p. 367)

Normalization

šumma ḫabbātum lā ittaṣbat, awīlum ḫabtum mimmâšu ḫalqam maḫar ilim ubār-ma ālum u rabiānum ša ina erṣetīšunu u pāṭīšunu ḫubtum iḫḫabtu mimmâšu ḫalqam iribbūšum.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 93)

Translation

If the robber has not been caught, the robbed man will establish his missing property before the god and the town and mayor in whose region and district the robbery was committed will replace his missing property for him.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 93)

LawgicSnifferSM

Logic Map for § 23

#
Steps
Law Text
  • 1 If
  • 2
  • 3 the robber
  • 4 has not
  • 5 been caught,
  • 6 the robbed man
  • 7 will establish his missing property before the
  • 8 god
  • 9
  • 10 and
  • 11
  • 12 the town and mayor in whose region and district the robbery was committed
  • 13 will replace his missing property for him.
  • 14
  • 15
  • 16

GrammarSnifferSM

Akkadian Words in Law § 23

šumma (conditional Particle) "if; whether"

u (Conjunction)

ina (Preposition) "in, on, onto"

Citation

Dedović, B. "§ 23 - eHammurabi." OMNIKA Foundation, 25 Oct. 2023, ehlaw.org/law/23. [Accessed 11 Jul. 2024]

MLA 9

Dedović, B. (2023, October 25). § 23 - eHammurabi. OMNIKA Foundation. https://ehlaw.org/law/23

APA 7

Dedović, Boban. "§ 23 - eHammurabi." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created October 25, 2023. Modified June 29, 2024. Accessed July 11, 2024. https://ehlaw.org/law/23.

CMS 16

Bibliography

Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. New York, NY: Blautopf, 2017.

ACH

Bergmann, Eugen. Codex Ḫammurabi: Textus Primigenius. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1953.

CHTP

Huehnergard, John. A Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

HAG3

Huehnergard, John. Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

HKEY3

OMNIKA Foundation Contributors. "OMNIKA: Digital Mythology Library & Search Engine." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation, accessed November 14, 2023. https://omnika.org. [Visit]

Richardson, Mervyn E.J. Hammurabi's Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2004.

RHL

Sound of Text Contributors. "Sound of Text: AI Text-to-Speech." Accessed November 14, 2023. https://soundoftext.app. [Visit]

SoT

eHammurabi Glossary

The § symbol commonly denotes "a shorthand notation for the word 'section'."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Cuneiform commonly means "an ancient writing system used by various cultures around Mesopotamia."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Normalization commonly means "the application of grammatical rules unto transliterated sound values."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Translation commonly means "the conversion of linguistic contents and their meanings from one language into another."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Transliteration commonly means "the conversion of sound values from one writing system into another."

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