§ 8

Law § 8 of Hammurabi's Code

Summary
as a muškēnum (working-class person), the punishment for stealing certain farm animals from a man, deity, or sacred location is ten times the animals' value; the punishment for inability to pay said value is execution.
Translation
If a man stole either an ox or a sheep or a donkey or a pig or a boat, if it belonged to the god or the palace, he will give up to thirty-fold; if it belonged to a muškēnum, he will give back up to ten-fold; if the thief in question does not have what must be given (or, anything to give) he will be executed. · ·
Inscription

Cuneiform

Law § 8 - Cuneiform - Law Code of Hammurabi

Source: Bergmann (1953, p. 4–5, col. VI, lns. 57–69)

Transliteration

šum-ma a-wi-lum lu GUD lu UDU lu ANŠE lu šaḫâm(ŠAḪ) ù lu gišMÁ iš-ri-iq šum-ma ša i-lim šum-ma ša É.GAL A.RÁ 30-šu i-na-ad-di-in šum-ma ša MAŠ.EN.GAG A.RÁ 10-šu i-ri-a-ab šum-ma šar-ra-qá-nu-um ša na-da-nim la i-šu id-da-ak

Source: Huehnergard (2011, p. 350)

Normalization

šumma awīlum lū alpam lū immeram lū imēram lū šaḫâm ū lū eleppam išriq šumma ša ilim šumma ša ekallim, adi šalāšāʾīšu inaddin; šumma ša muškēnim, adi ešrīšu irīab; šumma šarrāqānum ša nadānim lā īšu, iddâk.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 88)

Translation

If a man stole either an ox or a sheep or a donkey or a pig or a boat, if it belonged to the god or the palace, he will give up to thirty-fold; if it belonged to a muškēnum, he will give back up to ten-fold; if the thief in question does not have what must be given (or, anything to give) he will be executed.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 88)

LawgicSnifferSM

Logic Map for § 8

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Steps
Law Text

GrammarSnifferSM

Akkadian Words in Law § 8

šumma (conditional Particle) "if; whether"

awīlum (Noun form) Masculine Singular Nominative of awīlu "man"

muškēnim (Noun form) Masculine Singular Genitive of muškēnu "commoner"

iddâk (N-Stem Durative Verb form) 3rd Person Common Singular of dâku "to kill"

Citation

Dedović, B. "§ 8 - eHammurabi." OMNIKA Foundation, 24 Oct. 2023, ehlaw.org/law/8. [Accessed 11 Jul. 2024]

MLA 9

Dedović, B. (2023, October 24). § 8 - eHammurabi. OMNIKA Foundation. https://ehlaw.org/law/8

APA 7

Dedović, Boban. "§ 8 - eHammurabi." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created October 24, 2023. Modified July 1, 2024. Accessed July 11, 2024. https://ehlaw.org/law/8.

CMS 16

Bibliography

Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. New York, NY: Blautopf, 2017.

ACH

Bergmann, Eugen. Codex Ḫammurabi: Textus Primigenius. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1953.

CHTP

Huehnergard, John. A Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

HAG3

Huehnergard, John. Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

HKEY3

OMNIKA Foundation Contributors. "OMNIKA: Digital Mythology Library & Search Engine." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation, accessed November 14, 2023. https://omnika.org. [Visit]

Richardson, Mervyn E.J. Hammurabi's Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2004.

RHL

Sound of Text Contributors. "Sound of Text: AI Text-to-Speech." Accessed November 14, 2023. https://soundoftext.app. [Visit]

SoT

eHammurabi Glossary

The § symbol commonly denotes "a shorthand notation for the word 'section'."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Cuneiform commonly means "an ancient writing system used by various cultures around Mesopotamia."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Normalization commonly means "the application of grammatical rules unto transliterated sound values."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Translation commonly means "the conversion of linguistic contents and their meanings from one language into another."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Transliteration commonly means "the conversion of sound values from one writing system into another."

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