§ 3

Law § 3 of Hammurabi's Code

Summary
in capital cases, the punishment for being unable to prove an accusation is execution.
Translation
If a man came forth in a legal case for (presenting) false testimony (lit. testimony of falsehoods), and has not proved the word/words he spoke, if that case is a capital case, that man will be executed. · ·

Cuneiform

Law § 3 - Cuneiform - Law Code of Hammurabi

Source: Bergmann (1953, p. 4, col. V, lns. 57–67)

Transliteration

šum-ma a-wi-lum i-na di-nim a-na ši-bu-ut sà-ar-ra-tim ú-ṣí-a-am-ma a-wa-at iq-bu-ú la uk-ti-in šum-ma di-nu-um šu-ú di-in na-pí-iš-tim a-wi-lum šu-ú id-da-ak

Source: Huehnergard (2011, p. 216)

Normalization

šumma awīlum ina dīnim ana šībūt sarrātim uṣiam-ma awāt/awât iqbû lā uktīn, šumma dīnum šū dīn napištim, awīlum šū iddâk.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 47)

Translation

If a man came forth in a legal case for (presenting) false testimony (lit. testimony of falsehoods), and has not proved the word/words he spoke, if that case is a capital case, that man will be executed.

Source: Huehnergard (2013, p. 47)

LawgicSnifferSM

Logic Map for § 3

#
Steps
Law Text
  • 1 If
  • 2
  • 3 a man
  • 4 came forth in a legal case for (presenting) false evidence,
  • 5
  • 6 and
  • 7
  • 8 [he]
  • 9 has not proved the words
  • 10 [that] he
  • 11 spoke,
  • 12
  • 13 [and]
  • 14 if
  • 15
  • 16 that case is a capital case,
  • 17
  • 18
  • 19 [then]
  • 20
  • 21 that man
  • 22 will be executed.
  • 23
  • 24
  • 25

GrammarSnifferSM

Akkadian Words in Law § 3

šumma (conditional Particle) "if; whether"

awīlum (Noun form) Masculine Singular Nominative of awīlu "man"

ina (Preposition) "in, on, onto"

ana (Preposition) "to, for, in order to"

(negation Particle) "not, no, nor; (negation)"

šumma (conditional Particle) "if; whether"

awīlum (Noun form) Masculine Singular Nominative of awīlu "man"

iddâk (N-Stem Durative Verb form) 3rd Person Common Singular of dâku "to kill"

Citation

Dedović, B. "§ 3 - eHammurabi." OMNIKA Foundation, 22 Oct. 2023, ehlaw.org/law/3. [Accessed 19 Apr. 2024]

MLA 9

Dedović, B. (2023, October 22). § 3 - eHammurabi. OMNIKA Foundation. https://ehlaw.org/law/3

APA 7

Dedović, Boban. "§ 3 - eHammurabi." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation. Created October 22, 2023. Modified March 29, 2024. Accessed April 19, 2024. https://ehlaw.org/law/3.

CMS 16

Bibliography

Abulhab, Saad D. The Law Code of Hammurabi: Transliterated and Literally Translated from its Early Classical Arabic Language. New York, NY: Blautopf, 2017.

ACH

Bergmann, Eugen. Codex Ḫammurabi: Textus Primigenius. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum, 1953.

CHTP

Huehnergard, John. A Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2011.

HAG3

Huehnergard, John. Key to a Grammar of Akkadian (Third Edition). Winona Lake, IN: Eisenbrauns, 2013.

HKEY3

OMNIKA Foundation Contributors. "OMNIKA: Digital Mythology Library & Search Engine." Las Vegas, NV: OMNIKA Foundation, accessed November 14, 2023. https://omnika.org. [Visit]

Richardson, Mervyn E.J. Hammurabi's Laws: Text, Translation and Glossary. New York, NY: T & T Clark International, 2004.

RHL

Sound of Text Contributors. "Sound of Text: AI Text-to-Speech." Accessed November 14, 2023. https://soundoftext.app. [Visit]

SoT

eHammurabi Glossary

The § symbol commonly denotes "a shorthand notation for the word 'section'."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Cuneiform commonly means "an ancient writing system used by various cultures around Mesopotamia."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Normalization commonly means "the application of grammatical rules unto transliterated sound values."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Translation commonly means "the conversion of linguistic contents and their meanings from one language into another."

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eHammurabi Glossary

The term Transliteration commonly means "the conversion of sound values from one writing system into another."

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